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John MacArthur Wars Against The Truth

In the book, The Truth War, "the author of over 150 books," the "pastor-teacher of Grace Community Church in Sun Valley, California," "The president of The Master's College and Seminary," the "president of Grace to You, the ministry that produces the internationally syndicated radio program Grace to You," the author of "the notes in the Gold Medallion Award-winning MacArthur Study Bible,"1 wars against the Truth (Christ, John 14:6) and preaches "another Jesus" (2 Corinthians 11:4).

I. The Cause of Evil

The Bible is very clear (see Scriptures below) that our great God and Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ, is the cause of all, including sin. As it is written,

For God has committed them all to disobedience, that He might have mercy on all. (Romans 11:32)

For of Him and through Him and to Him are all things, to whom be glory forever. Amen. (Romans 11:36)

Despite the clear teaching of Scripture, MacArthur denies "the Lord who bought" him, as 2 Peter 2:1 says men like him would do.

In The Truth War in chapter six, "The Evil of False Teaching: How Error Turns Grace into Licentiousness," MacArthur writes,

Scripture puts no limits on God's sovereignty. (p. 124, The Truth War)

Yet, in hypocrisy, in the very next paragraph, MacArthur puts limits on God's sovereignty.

That does not mean, however, that God is the agent or the direct cause of any evil. We are not to imagine that God actively makes wicked people diabolical in the same sense that He sovereignly conforms true believers to the image of Christ. (ibid., p. 125)

Scripture speaks to the contrary.

The Lord has made all for Himself, yes, even the wicked for the day of doom. (Proverbs 16:4)

The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately wicked. (Jeremiah 17:9)

For by Him all things were created that are in heaven and that are on earth. (Colossians 1:16)

The wicked are estranged from the womb; they go astray as soon as they are born, speaking lies. (Psalm 58:3)

You are worthy, O Lord, to receive glory and honor and power; for You created all things, and by Your will they exist and were created. (Revelation 4:11)

The wicked, and their desperately deceitful and wicked hearts, were and are created by God, and they continue to exist and be wicked because He wills it so, as Revelation 4:11 explicitly says, "by Your will they exist." People don't decide on their own to be wicked and estranged from the womb as soon as they are born. Do little babies have a choice in the matter? Are they responsible for making themselves estranged from the womb? Are they responsible for having evil hearts that can do no good and only rebel (Proverbs 17:11)?2 God makes them that way. There is no other (Deuteronomy 4:39).

Yet, MacArthur argues,

God's sovereignty in no way makes Him responsible for the evil that corrupts the hearts of apostates. (ibid., p. 125)

If God is not responsible, who is? Is there another God out there? Certainly not! If it is God who has long ago marked them out for this condemnation (Jude 4), if it is God who has declared the end from the beginning (Isaiah 46:10), if it is God who has spoken beforehand that they are like "brute beasts made to be caught and destroyed" (2 Peter 2:12), if it is God who has made them wicked (Proverbs 16:4) with desperately deceitful and corrupt hearts (Jeremiah 17:9), then "who has resisted His will" (Romans 9:19)? No one. Yet, He will still find fault (Revelation 20:11-15).

MacArthur continues,

God does not compel them or entice them to sin. (ibid., p. 125)

Certainly, He does not tempt (James 1:13). No, He just makes them so wicked they can do nothing but sin! As it is written,

The plowing of the wicked is sin. (Proverbs 21:4)

When a wicked person simply plows his field, he is sinning, because "whatever is not from faith is sin" (Romans 14:23). Unbelievers, including apostates (false teachers), are in a perpetual state of no faith. That's why even the "good" deeds of sinners are no good (Isaiah 64:6). Everything they do is sin, and God is the one who made them that way.

MacArthur claims,

God does not make anyone sin. (ibid., p. 125)

Well, MacArthur needs to inform the prophet Isaiah of that, because Isaiah was convinced God made them sin.

O Lord, why have You made us stray from Your ways, and hardened our heart from Your fear? (Isaiah 63:17)

Isaiah does not ask the Lord whether or not He caused them to sin. Isaiah asks why He caused them to sin, to "stray from Your ways." Earlier Isaiah wrote,

Behold, the name of the Lord comes from afar, burning with His anger, and His burden is heavy; His lips are full of indignation, and His tongue like a devouring fire. His breath is like an overflowing stream, which reaches up to the neck, to sift the nations with the sieve of futility; and there shall be a bridle in the jaws of the people, causing them to err. (Isaiah 30:27-28)

It's obvious from the context who is putting that "bridle in the jaws of the people." It is the Lord "causing them to err."

King David is another man MacArthur needs to inform concerning this most precious "truth," because God Himself told David that He would cause someone to commit adultery with his wives.

Thus saith the LORD, Behold, I will raise up evil against thee out of thine own house, and I will take thy wives before thine eyes, and give them unto thy neighbour, and he shall lie with thy wives in the sight of this sun. For thou didst it secretly: but I will do this thing before all Israel, and before the sun. (2 Samuel 12:11-12 KJV)

The Lord takes full responsibility for this massive adulterous affair stating, "I will do this thing," and what is He talking about? He makes Absalom have sex with David's ten concubines (2 Samuel 16:21-22; 20:3).

Also, in 2 Samuel 16:10-11 we find that the Lord commanded Shimei to "Curse David." David says, "the Lord has said to him, 'Curse David.'" (2 Samuel 16:10). Thus, God ordered Shimei to sin (Exodus 22:28; Ecclesiastes 10:20). Shimei admits later to David that he indeed did sin by cursing him.

I, your servant, know that I have sinned. (2 Samuel 19:20)

Years later Solomon killed Shimei for this sin that "the Lord has ordered him" to do (2 Samuel 16:11).

Likewise, David did not pray in vain,

Do not incline my heart to any evil thing, to practice wicked works with men who work iniquity. (Psalm 141:4)

David knew God does incline man's heart to wicked things, and so he asks the Lord not to do so with him. Yet, the Lord did so, even with David. Besides the adulterous affair with Bathsheba and subsequent murder of Uriah in 2 Samuel 11 which the Lord caused (Proverbs 20:24), later it says,

Again the anger of the Lord was aroused against Israel, and He moved David against them to say, "Go, number Israel and Judah." (2 Samuel 24:1)3

The following verses reveal David sinned when he did this act which God "moved" him to do. Therefore, the Lord clearly moved David to sin. In fact, God moves all men to sin whenever they sin. As it is written,

O Lord, I know the way of man is not in himself; it is not in man who walks to direct his own steps. (Jeremiah 10:23)

Man's steps, man's actions, are not of himself. If the steps of man are not his own, whose are they? They are God's and His doing. As it is written,

A man's steps are of the Lord; how then can a man understand his own way? (Proverbs 20:24; see also 16:9)

When men step to do evil, that is "of the Lord." So teaches the word of God.

Nevertheless, MacArthur wars against the truth and writes,

The will to sin always stems from the sinner's own heart, not from God. He is never the author or efficient cause of evil. (ibid., p. 127)

Without denying the above or God's efficient cause, it is true, at the same time, that the will to sin stems from the sinner's own evil heart (Jeremiah 11:8). That's all the sinner's evil heart can will to do, sin (Proverbs 17:11; Jeremiah 13:23). That's the reason, at least in part, why the way of man is not in himself. He didn't create himself, and he didn't give himself his own evil heart that is only and solely inclined to do evil (as in Genesis 6:5). But, MacArthur fails to acknowledge this and overtly claims God "is never the author or efficient cause of evil," when the Lord Almighty says otherwise.

I form the light, and create darkness: I make peace, and create evil: I the Lord do all these things. (KJV Isaiah 45:7, more lit. וּבוֹרֵא רָע [uvorê' râ`] "and create bad")

Who is he that saith, and it cometh to pass, when the Lord commandeth it not? Out of the mouth of the most High proceedeth not evil and good? (Lamentations 3:37-38, KJV)

Shall a trumpet be blown in the city, and the people not be afraid? Shall there be evil in a city, and the Lord hath not done it? (Amos 3:6, KJV; see also Jeremiah 18:11 KJV)

Even though He takes no pleasure in wickedness (Psalm 5:4) and is holy and righteous (Psalm 145:17), He is nonetheless the creator of evil, as Isaiah 45:7 explicitly states.

Job knew this. He knew God is the cause of all, even evil. Job said,

With Him are strength and prudence. The deceived and the deceiver are His. (Job 12:16)

Job was not talking about some deistic possession of God. He was talking about God's absolute cause and control of everthing. Read the context of Job 12:16 in Job 12:13-13:1. Besides, God Himself says,

If the prophet be deceived when he hath spoken a thing, I the Lord have deceived that prophet, and I will stretch out my hand upon him, and will destroy him from the midst of my people Israel. (Ezekiel 14:9, KJV)4

God says, "I the Lord have deceived that prophet," and the result of that deception is the deceptive words coming out of the prophet's mouth. And, even though God is the one that "deceived that prophet," He will nonetheless hold that prophet accountable for what he "hath spoken" and "will destroy him" for what he said.

So then, even though God Himself cannot lie (Titus 1:2), He nevertheless deceives. For examples of this deceit, see 2 Chronicles 18:18-22 (1 Kings 22:19-23); Isaiah 30:28; and 2 Thessalonians 2:11-12. The word of God is clear. God is indeed the cause of all, even lies.

So, despite what the Bible teaches, in this same chapter, MacArthur emphasizes his war against the truth.

Before leaving the subject, let me stress that two common errors must be avoided in our thinking about God's sovereignty as it relates to evil. One, of course, is this notion (sometimes advocated by certain hyper-Calvinists) that God actively and directly causes evildoers to be evil. (p. 127)

In MacArthur's twisted (2 Peter 3:16) view of sovereignty, he creates a biblically unknown evil power greater than the Almighty Himself. How is this? When MacArthur claims God does not actively and directly cause evildoers to be evil, the actions of these men are no longer actively decreed by God (Isaiah 46:10). They are no longer actively of, through, and to Him (Romans 11:36). They are no longer actively the creation of God Himself (Isaiah 45:7). They are no longer actively upheld by the word of His power (Hebrews 1:3). They are no longer actively His works (Psalm 104:23-24). But rather, they become actions outside these sovereign truths of God. If they are outside these truths, there is an evil power greater than God Himself. That power could only be the power of Satan, the evil one. In other words, when MacArthur teaches that God is not the cause of evil, he exalts Satan's power, the power of darkness (Luke 22:53), to be greater than the power of God, and in so doing, shows himself to be who he is, a son of the devil (as in John 8:44).

II. Hypocrisy

MacArthur's teaching is one of hypocrisy (as in Luke 12:1 & Matthew 16:12). He'll say the wrong thing, but then also say the right thing; and so deceive the hearts of the simple (Romans 16:18). For example, in this same chapter, MacArthur writes,

We are not to think God's command over evil and evildoers is limited to a kind of passive, prescient foreknowledge in which He reluctantly and grudgingly gives His consent to something He knows evildoers are going to do anyway.

Rather, the picture of divine sovereignty in Scripture is that God positively ordains whatsoever comes to pass. (ibid., p. 128)

This "positively ordains" is meaningless rhetoric in light of the above quotes. Yet, specifically, two pages earlier on page 126 he speaks directly against what he writes here on page 128. He even uses some of the same wording, but conceptually expresses an opposing view. On page 126, in the context of Romans 9:18, quoting in agreement with Jonathan Edwards, MacArthur writes,

When God is here spoken of as hardening some of the children of men, it is not to be understood that God by any positive efficiency hardens any man's heart. There is no positive act in God, as though he put forth any power to harden the heart. To suppose any such thing would be to make God the immediate author of sin. God is said to harden men in two ways: by withholding the powerful influences of his Spirit, without which their hearts will remain hardened, and grow harder and harder; in this sense he hardens them, as he leaves them to hardness. And again, by ordering those things in his providence which, through the abuse of their corruption, become the occasion of their hardening. (ibid., p. 126, bold added)

In other words, according to MacArthur and Edwards, God leaves them to themselves. That is passive, not active. Note also, in the first quote MacArthur says "God positively ordains," and in this quote he says, "no positive act in God." That is double talk.

Moreover, on the passage being discussed, Romans 9:18, both Edwards and MacArthur teach unbelief in God's word. Romans 9:18 says,

Therefore He has mercy on whom He wills, and whom He wills He hardens.

Both Edwards and MacArthur make this act of hardening into a passive act ("leaves them to hardness"). The Greek word for "He hardens" is σκληρυνει (sklêrunei) which is a present active indicative verb. It is not passive, either in the Greek or English. But, Edwards and MacArthur would have you think it is a passive act of God, but it is not, as Pharaoh well illustrates.

Before Moses even entered Egypt, the Lord told him that He would harden Pharaoh's heart (Exodus 4:21), and this is noted twice (Exodus 7:3) before it is ever recorded that Pharaoh himself hardened his heart (Exodus 8:15). This is why Romans 9:17 says,

For this very purpose I have raised you up, that I may show My power in you, and that My name may be declared in all the earth.

God raised Pharaoh up, hardened his heart, and made him harden his heart (Romans 11:36), so that Pharaoh would not let Israel go until God had displayed His awesome power (Exodus 10:1). He even hardened Pharaoh's heart again, after they left, to again be glorified via the destruction of Pharaoh and his army (Exodus 14:4, 8; Psalm 136:15). He made His power known via the destruction of Egypt and the deliverance of Israel (Exodus 7:14-15:21), all through hardening Pharaoh's heart, and the hearts of the Egyptians (Exodus 14:16-18). He hardened their heart to their own destruction and to His glory, just as He did in the conquest of the promised land (Joshua 11:20), and just as He does with the majority of mankind for eternity (Isaiah 66:24; Matthew 7:13-14; Romans 9:18-22; Revelation 21:8).

III. The Teaching of Scripture

Speaking in the context of those who "insist that no one has any right to say for sure what the Bible means" (e.g. Brian McLaren), MacArthur writes,

Thus "evangelical" postmodernism has transformed doubt, uncertainty, and qualms about practically every teaching of Scripture into high virtue. Strong convictions plainly stated are invariably labeled "arrogance" by those who favor postmodern dialogue.

Now, obviously, we cannot righteously be dogmatic about every peripheral belief or matter of personal preference. (The Truth War, p. 155, bold added)

Since when are we ever to be dogmatic on any "matter of personal preference" when it comes to the "teaching of Scripture"? Never! Personal preference means nothing when it comes to the teaching of Scripture. We are not to add to nor take away from the Word (Deuteronomy 12:32; Proverbs 30:5-6). We are not even to think beyond what is written (1 Corinthians 4:6).

As far as a "peripheral belief" is concerned, who says what is peripheral? Scripture does (e. g. Matthew 23:23; Hosea 6:6), not us, and if Scripture declares it peripheral, then we should dogmatically declare it peripheral as well.

MacArthur continues,

Now, obviously, we cannot righteously be dogmatic about every peripheral belief or matter of personal preference. Virtually no one believes every opinion is worth fighting about. (p. 155, bold added, italics in original)

Since when is any opinion worth fighting about? The thoughts of man are futile (Psalm 94:11), and Scripture is of no "private interpretation" (2 Peter 1:20). Thus, no opinion is worth fighting about.

MacArthur continues,

Now, obviously, we cannot righteously be dogmatic about every peripheral belief or matter of personal preference. Virtually no one believes every opinion is worth fighting about. Scripture draws the line with ample clarity: we're commanded to defend the faith once delivered to the saints; (p. 155, bold added)

This "ample clarity" isn't clear. In fact, it's amply ambiguous. MacArthur can't even say what exactly it is, for his "faith once delivered to the saints" is not a faith that includes all of the Bible ("the teaching of Scripture").

In two other books, MacArthur writes of this same exact "faith once delivered to the saints" calling it "the fundamentals" or "the articles necessary to salvation" and writes,

To point out the articles necessary to salvation, and precisely determine their number, is a task, if not utterly impossible, at least extremely difficult. (Reckless Faith, p. 115, copyright 1994; Truth Matters, p. 91, copyright 2004)

And,

It is of no great importance, besides, to the church at large, to know quite correctly the precise number of fundamental articles. (Reckless Faith, p. 115, Truth Matters, p. 91)

And,

Nothing is more desperately needed in the church right now than a new movement to reemphasize the fundamental articles of the faith. (Reckless Faith, p. 117, Truth Matters, p. 93)

So, even though we don't know what they all are, and it's "of no great importance" to know what they all are, even though they are "necessary to salvation," they need to be reemphasized! How do you reemphasize what has never been emphasized, nor ever can be, since it is "utterly impossible" or "at least extremely difficult" to even know, let alone emphasize?

MacArthur's amply clear "line" is no line at all, but rather an ungraspable wind (Ephesians 4:14).

In The Truth War MacArthur continues,

Now, obviously, we cannot righteously be dogmatic about every peripheral belief or matter of personal preference. Virtually no one believes every opinion is worth fighting about. Scripture draws the line with ample clarity: we're commanded to defend the faith once delivered to the saints; but we're forbidden to pick fights with one another over secondary issues (Romans 14:1). (p. 155-156, bold added)

MacArthur references Romans 14:1 as support for this "secondary issues" concept. Remember, he is speaking in the context of "the teaching of Scripture." Thus, he claims there are "secondary issues," that is, teachings of Scripture, that are classified as "secondary" which are "forbidden" to fight over. Is that what Romans 14 is talking about? No way!

Romans 14 speaks of "doubtful things," and those "doubtful things" are matters of ones own personal conscience before God, as it says near the end of the chapter,

Do you have faith? Have it to yourself before God. Happy is he who does not condemn himself in what he approves. (Romans 14:22)

The specific matters the chapter deals with, if left to a matter of one's own personal conscience, are doubtful things. It is nothing to contend over (Romans 14:3-4, 10-13). But, if it is a matter of doctrine, the teaching of Scripture, it is not a doubtful thing at all.

Paul speaks of eating meat or not eating meat in Romans 14:2-3. In 1 Timothy 4:1-3, if anyone teaches to abstain from eating meat, they are teaching a doctrine that is one of the two doctrines given in 1 Timothy 4:1-3 that identifies those who have departed from the faith and follow doctrines of demons. When it is a matter of doctrine, it is of utmost importance. If it is a matter of one's own personal conscience, we are not to judge (Romans 14:3).

Likewise, Romans 14:5-6 speaks of observing days. Here in Romans 14, because it is in the context of personal conscience, it is not something to contend about. But, this very same issue, when it is a matter of doctrine, the teaching of Scripture, it is a matter of life or death, heaven or hell, as Paul wrote to the Galatians,

You observe days and months and seasons and years. I am afraid for you, lest I have labored for you in vain. (Galatians 4:10-11)

This is written in the context of the Galatians being bewitched by another gospel (Galatians 1:6; 3:1). That other gospel was one in which the law was propagated as having to be kept, thus, Paul's mention of the observances of days. In Romans 14 day observance is no big deal (Romans 14:5-6), because it is a matter of personal conscience. In Galatians 4:10-11 day observance is a big deal, because it is a matter of doctrine, the teaching of Scripture.

In The Truth War a little after the above quote MacArthur again reveals his hypocrisy and writes,

Christ has spoken in the Bible, and He holds us responsible to understand, interpret, obey, and teach what He said - . . . (ibid., p. 156)

Yet, according to MacArthur, some of what He said is "secondary," and not to be fought over, even though He will nonetheless hold us "responsible to understand, interpret, obey, and teach" it. That is double talk, and the complete opposite of Paul who wrote,

For though we walk in the flesh, we do not war according to the flesh. For the weapons of our warfare are not carnal but mighty in God for pulling down strongholds, casting down arguments and every high thing that exalts itself against the knowledge of God, bringing every thought into captivity to the obedience of Christ. (2 Corinthians 10:3-5)

The "knowledge of God" is Genesis to Revelation, the whole Bible, and Paul fought over "every thought" of it, bringing all to the obedience of the Word (Hebrews 4:12-13). For more on this fight, see www.atruechurch.info/savednot.html.

IV. John 6

Another example of MacArthur's war against the truth, the teaching of Scripture, can be found on page 71 of this same book, The Truth War.

Even Jesus' ministry provides a startling picture of real-life apostasy. John 6 records how large crowds showed up wherever He went while He was performing miracles. But they turned away en masse when He began to proclaim truth they did not want to hear. In most cases, it appears, their rejection of Christ was nothing less than final and irremediable apostasy. Near the end of that long, tragic chapter, verse 66 says this: "From that time many of His disciples went back and walked with Him no more."

Jesus' teaching made the truth starkly clear. These people, who evidently saw the truth plainly and understood Jesus' teaching perfectly well, turned away anyway. In fact, the utter clarity of the truth was the very thing that drove them away. When they saw the truth for what it was, they simply hated it. (bold added)

MacArthur teaches the opposite of what is revealed in John 6. Note John 6:41-42.

The Jews then complained about Him, because He said, "I am the bread which came down from heaven." And they said, "Is not this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know? How is it then that He says, 'I have come down from heaven'?"

Obviously, the Jews were not understanding. Note John 6:52.

The Jews therefore quarreled among themselves, saying, "How can this Man give us His flesh to eat?"

Again, they show a lack of understanding. Note further in John 6:60.

Therefore many of His disciples, when they heard this, said, "This is a hard saying; who can understand it?" (more literally, "who is able to hear it.")

All the way through, the context dictates that the Jews did not understand. Jesus speaking about eating His flesh and drinking His blood was not "starkly clear." They did not see "the truth plainly." In fact, it was the utter lack of clarity that helped to drive them away.

Even after Jesus briefly explains Himself in verse 63, Jesus says,

But there are some of you who do not believe.

Not believing dictates not understanding (2 Corinthians 4:4).

Endnotes:

1. These quotes are from the back inside dust jacket of The Truth War, copyright 2007 by John MacArthur, published by Nelson Books, a division of Thomas Nelson, Inc., Nashville, TN.

2. Proverbs 17:11 is more literally in the Hebrew, "An evil one seeks only rebellion," אךְ־מְרִי יְבַקֶּשׁ־רָע ('akh-meri yevaqqesh-râ`).

3. Speaking of the same event as in 2 Samuel 24:1, 1 Chronicles 21:1 records,

Now Satan stood up against Israel, and moved David to number Israel.

The Hebrew in this verse is quite interesting. Every other time in the Hebrew Bible when referring to Satan the person, the Hebrew word שָׂטָן (sâtân) is used with the definite article, הַשָּׂטָן (hasâtân). This is found in Job 1:6-9, 12; 2:1-4, 6-7; Zechariah 3:1-2 (vs. 1 also has the verb form, לְשִׂטְנוֹ [leshitno] "to oppose him"). Here in 1 Chronicles 21:1 it is simply שָׂטָן (sâtân) without the definite article. This same exact word, שָׂטָן (sâtân), is used of the Angel of the Lord in Numbers 22:22 ("adversary"), 32 ("to stand against you"; יָצָאתִי לְשָׂטָן [yâtsâ'tiy lesâtân] more literally, "I came out for an adversary"). שָׂטָן (sâtân) is used everywhere else as an "adversary" (1 Samuel 29:4; 2 Samuel 19:22 [H23]; 1 Kings 5:4 [H18]; 11:14, 23, 25; Psalm 109:6).

In the New Testament σατανας (satanas) "satan" is used with the definite article referring to Satan the person most of the time (Matthew 12:26 [2x]; Mark 1:13; 3:26; 4:15; Luke 10:18; 11:18; 13:16; 22:31; John 13:27; Acts 5:3; 26:18; Romans 16:20; 1 Corinthians 5:5; 7:5; 2 Corinthians 2:11; 11:14; 1 Thessalonians 2:18; 2 Thessalonians 2:9; 1 Timothy 1:20; 5:15; Revelation 2:9, 13 [2x], 24; 3:9; 12:9; 20:2, 7). Yet, it is found without the definite article where it is clearly speaking of the person Satan in Luke 22:3 (compare with John 13:27) and 2 Corinthians 12:7. Compare Mark 3:23 (without the definite article) with Matthew 12:26 (with the definite article). Σατανας (Satanas) is also found without the article in Matthew 4:10; 16:23; Mark 8:33 where all three are υπαγε οπισω μου, σατανα (hupage opisô mou, satana) "Get behind me, Satan" (or adversary). In Matthew 4:10 Jesus is speaking to Satan. In Matthew 16:23 & Mark 8:33 He is talking to Peter.

Moreover, the verb for "moved" in both 2 Samuel 24:1 and 1 Chronicles 21:1 is the same exact Hebrew word, וַיָּסֶת (vayyâset). This Hebrew verb is also found in Deuteromy 13:6 (H7, "entices"); Joshua 15:18 ("persuaded"); Judges 1:14 ("urged"); 1 Samuel 26:19 ("stirred up"); 1 Kings 21:25 ("stirred up"); 2 Kings 18:32 ("persuade"); 2 Chronicles 18:2 ("persuade"), 31 (God "diverted"); 32:11, 15 ("persuade"); Job 2:3 ("incited"); 36:16 ("would have brought . . . out"); Isaiah 36:18 ("persuade"); Jeremiah 38:22; 43:3 ("set").

4. The Hebrew words translated "deceived" in Ezekiel 14:9 (KJV) come from the Hebrew word פָּתָה (pâtâh) which is found also only in Exodus 22:16 (in Hebrew vs. 15, "entices" NKJV); Deuteronomy 11:16 ("deceived"); Judges 14:15 ("entice"); 16:5 ("entice"); 2 Samuel 3:25 ("deceive"); 1 Kings 22:20-22 ("persuade" note context); 2 Chronicles 18:19-21 ("persuade" note context); Job 5:2 ("simple one"); 31:9, 27 ("enticed"); Psalm 78:36 ("flattered" paralleled with "lied"); Proverbs 1:10 ("entice"); 16:29 ("entices"); 20:19 ("flatters"); 24:28 ("deceive"); 25:15 ("persuaded"); Jeremiah 20:7 (2x, "induced," "persuaded"), 10 ("induced"); Hosea 2:14 (in Hebrew vs 16, "allure"); 7:11 ("silly").

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