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He Is Holy Gods.
אֱלהִים קְדשִׁים הוּא
You are not able to serve Yehvah, because He is Holy Gods,1 a Jealous God. He will not forgive your transgressions and your sins.
(a more literal translation of Joshua 24:19, where both "Holy" and "Gods" are both in the plural)2
Knowledge of Holy Ones is Understanding.
(a more literal translation of Proverbs 9:10b)3
דַעַת קְדשִׁים בִּינָה
(Exodus 22:28, 1611 KJV, see endnote 27 & 5)
I. Various Testimonies
There is indeed only one God and one Lord (Ephesians 4:4-5), and He certainly is one (Deuteronomy 6:4; see endnote 28). Yet, contrary to classical Catholic and Protestant Trinitarian theology (Athanasian, see point V. below), this one and only true Lord God (John 17:3) is "Holy Gods," as Joshua 24:19 literally and explicitly says.
There is indeed only one God (Isaiah 44:6-8), "who alone has immortality" (1 Timothy 6:16), who alone is Holy (Revelation 15:4), who alone is wise (1 Timothy 1:17; Jude 25), "whose name alone is Jehovah" (Psalm 83:18 KJV, יְהוָ֣ה), whose "name alone is exalted" (Psalm 148:13). There is no other God besides Him (Deuteronomy 4:35; see endnote 28). Yet, this one God is Gods, as John 1:1 reveals.
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.4
The Word is God, and He is with God as well. So, God is with God, as the very first chapter in Genesis declares,
Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; . . . . So God created man in His own image. (Genesis 1:26-27; see also "Us" in Genesis 3:22;5 11:5-9; Isaiah 6:8; 16:6 ["We"]; Jeremiah 30:5 ["We"]; 48:29 ["We"]; Ezekiel 44:6; Obadiah 1:1 ["We"]; Luke 12:48 ["they"])
After Adam ate of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, the Lord said,
Behold, the man has become like one of Us, to know good and evil. (Genesis 3:22)
It is no wonder then that Ecclesiastes says,
Remember your Creators in the days of your youth, . . . . (Ecclesiastes 12:1, a more literal translation, see also Young's Literal Translation "Creators"; here we have the plural noun בּוֹרְאֶיךָ [bor'eychâ] "your Creators")
Abraham6 knew He is Holy Gods when he said to Abimelech,
And it came to pass, when Gods caused me to wander from my father's house, . . . . (הִתְעוּ אתִי אֱלהִים [hit`u 'otiy 'elohiym], a more literal translation of Genesis 20:13, where the plural verb is used with the plural noun)7
Prior to this, these Gods appeared to Abraham in Genesis 18. As it is written,
Then the LORD appeared to him by the terebinth trees of Mamre, as he was sitting in the tent door in the heat of the day. So he lifted his eyes and looked, and behold, three men were standing by him; . . . . (Genesis 18:1-2a)
For more on this encounter, see The Three Men In Genesis 18 Are God.
The Writer of Genesis knew He is Holy Gods when He wrote,
And he built there an altar and called the place, "God, the house of God," because there the Gods were revealed to him in his fleeing from the face of his brother.8 (a more literal translation of Genesis 35:7, where the Niphal plural verb is used with the plural noun, נִגְלוּ אֵלָיו הָאֱלהִים [niglu 'êlâyv hâ'elohiym])9
Here "the Gods" who "were revealed to him" is the "God" אֵל ('êl, singular noun) of "the house of God" בֵּית־אֵל (bêyt 'êl, singular noun), called earlier in Genesis 28:17 & 22, בֵּית אֱלהִים (bêyt 'elohiym), literally, "house of Gods."
Moses knew He is Holy Gods when he wrote,
For what great nation is there that has Gods near to it as Yehvah our Gods [or God] in all we call to Him? (a more literal translation of Deuteronomy 4:7, where the plural participle קְרבִים [qeroviym] "near" is used with the plural noun אֱלהִים ['elohiym] "Gods")10
Moses, David, and Jeremiah knew He is Holy Gods when they referred to the Lord as אֱלהִים חַיִּים ('elohiym chayyiym) "living Gods" in Deuteronomy 5:26; 1 Samuel 17:26, 36; Jeremiah 10:10; and 23:36. In each case they use both the plural adjective and the plural noun, unlike 2 Kings 19:4, 16; Isaiah 37:4, 17 where the singular adjective חַי (chay) "living" is used with the plural noun אֱלהִים ('elohiym, "God" or "Gods" depending on context), or unlike Joshua 3:10; Psalm 42:2 (H3); 84:2 (H3); and Hosea 2:1 where both the singular adjective and singular noun are used, אֵל חַי ('êl chay) "living God."
David said in 2 Samuel 7:23,
And who is like your people, like Israel, one nation on the earth whom Gods went to redeem for Himself for a people, to put for Himself a name and to do for Yourselves the great and awesome things for Your land before Your people whom You redeemed for Yourself from Egypt, nations, and his gods. (a more literal translation where the plural verb is used with the plural noun, חָלְכוּ־אֱלהִים [châlkhu-'elohiym] "Gods went" along with the second person plural pronoun “Yourselves,” לָכֶם [lâkhem])
The Lord who redeemed Israel for Himself said to Israel,
For your Husbands, your Makers, Yehvah of armies is His name. (Isaiah 54:5, a more literal translation of בעֲלַיִךְ עשַׂיִךְ [vo`alayikh `osayikh] "your Husbands, your Makers")
Psalm 149:2 declares,
Let Israel rejoice in his Makers. Let the sons of Zion be joyful in their King. (a more literal translation of עשָׂיו [`osâyv] "his Makers")
And a man will say, "Indeed, fruit for the righteous, indeed, there are Gods judging in the earth." (a more literal translation)11
There are indeed Gods. The Father is God (1 Corinthians 8:6). The Son is God (2 Peter 1:1; John 8:17-18). Jerusalem Is God. The Seven Spirits Are God. The Horses of Zechariah 1 Are God. The Throne, the Heavens, and the Kingdom Are God. This is the real Biblical God, who is Gods. He is neither preached nor acknowledged in the false churches of today, but rather, "They" (Daniel 4:25) are rejected and denied (2 Peter 2:1) both in precept (doctrine) and in practice (Titus 1:16).
II. Pagan Testimony
Even the pagan Philistines express the God of Israel as Gods in one God. After hearing about the ark of the Lord being brought into the camp of Israel, in fear the Philistines say,
God is come into the camp. (1 Samuel 4:7 KJV)
Here the Philistines use the plural noun for "God" אֱלהִים ('elohiym) with the singular verb בָּא (bâ') "is come," and so it is translated "God is come." But in the very next verse it says,
who shall deliver us out of the hand of these mighty Gods? these are the Gods that smote the Egyptians with all the plagues in the wilderness. (1 Samuel 4:8 KJV)
In this verse we have the singular "hand" יַד (yad). There is also the plural demonstrative pronoun "these" הָאֵלֶּה (hâ'êlleh), the plural adjective "mighty" הָאַדִּירִים (hâ'addiyritym), and the plural noun "Gods" הָאֱלהִים (hâ'elohiym) for "these mighty Gods." There is also the plural demonstrative pronoun "these" אֵלֶּה ('âlleh), with the plural pronoun translated "are" הֵם (hêm), the plural noun "Gods" הָאֱלהִים (hâ'elohiym), with the plural participle "that smote" הַמַּכִּים (hamakkiym), for "these are the Gods who smote . . .".
1 Samuel 4:7-8 well illustrates how these other verses that have plural adjectives and plural verbs with a plural noun ought to be translated in the plural as they are in 1 Samuel 4:8.12 The Philistines spoke rightly. They refer to God in the singular in verse 7 and in the plural in verse 8, as did Abraham, Moses, Joshua, David, Jeremiah, and Daniel all speak of God in both the singular and plural.
III. Daniel's Testimony
Daniel well illustrates "He is Holy Gods" as well. In Daniel 4:8-9, and 18 the KJV reads,
But at the last Daniel came in before me, whose name was Belteshazzar, according to the name of my god, and in whom is the spirit of the holy gods: and before him I told the dream, saying, O Belteshazzar, master of the magicians, because I know that the spirit of the holy gods is in thee, . . . . (Aramaic text is Daniel 4:5-6)
O Belteshazzar, declare the interpretation thereof, forasmuch as all the wise men of my kingdom are not able to make known unto me the interpretation: but thou art able; for the spirit of the holy gods is in thee. (Aramaic text is Daniel 4:15; see also NAS, NIV)
Nebuchadnezzar, the holy man of God moved by the Holy Spirit (2 Peter 1:21), the one who gave us Daniel chapter 4, expressed the truth when he spoke of the "spirit of the holy gods" in Daniel. This chapter, chapter 4 of Daniel, reveals at the end of the chapter how Nebuchadnezzar turned to the Lord and praised "Him who lives forever and ever" (verse 34). Yet, before this, Nebuchadnezzar spoke of Daniel's God in a similar fashion. In chapter two the king said to Daniel,
From truth that your Gods, He is God of gods, and Lord of kings, and Revealer of secrets, . . . . (Daniel 2:47, a more literal translation)
Here in chapter two Nebuchadnezzar speaks in the plural, "your Gods" אֱלָהֲכוֹן ('elâhakhon), but then in the singular, "He is God of gods" הוּא אֱלָהּ אֱלָהִין (hu' 'elâh 'elâhiyn), and in the singular, "and Lord of kings" וּמָרֵא מַלְכִין (umârê' malkhiyn), and in the singular, "and Revealer of secrets" וְגָלֵה רָזִין (vegâlêh râziyn). Later, in chapter four, three times over Nebuchadnezzar uses the phrase רוּחַ אֱלָהִין קַדִּישִׁין (ruach 'elâhiyn qaddiyshiyn) "spirit of the holy gods" (Daniel 4:8-9, 18). Nebuchadnezzar was correct in what he said in all of these phrases. Daniel indeed had the Spirit of the Holy Gods.
This Aramaic phrase is very similar to the Hebrew phrase "He is Holy Gods" of Joshua 24:19. Daniel 4:8-9 and 18 have the singular noun רוּחַ (ruach) "spirit" with the plural adjective and plural noun אֱלָהִין קַדִּישִׁין ('elâhiyn qaddiyshiyn) "holy gods" (KJV). Joshua 24:19 likewise has the singular pronoun הוּא (hu') "He" and the plural adjective and plural noun אֱלהִים קְדשִׁים ('elohiym qedoshiym) "Holy Gods."
Furthermore, notice Daniel 4:8-9 and 18 do not have "spirits of the holy gods," but rather "spirit of the holy gods" (KJV). This singular "spirit" of the "holy gods" (plural) is also mentioned later in Daniel 5:11 (see KJV)13 by the queen, and the king likewise says,
I have even heard of thee, that the spirit of the gods is in thee, and that light and understanding and excellent wisdom is found in thee. (Daniel 5:14 KJV)
In every case, there is no record of Daniel giving any correction of this statement regarding him and the "Spirit of the Holy Gods" in him. There is no need for correction. It was literally true. Daniel indeed had "the Spirit of the Holy Gods," and Daniel 4 bears witness to it, as it very much speaks of God in the plural.
Daniel 4:17 says,
This decision is by the decree of the watchers, and the sentence by the word of the holy ones, . . . .
Who are "the watchers" and "the holy ones"? A little later it says,
this is the interpretation, O king, and this is the decree of the Most High, which has come upon my lord the king: (Daniel 4:24)
The "decree of the watchers" and "the sentence by the word of the holy ones" (Daniel 4:17) is "the decree of the Most High" (Daniel 4:24). So, who are "the watchers" and "the holy ones" of Daniel 4:17? According to the context (Daniel 4:8-9, 17-18, 24), they are "holy gods" (KJV, or "Holy Gods") of the one "spirit" (KJV, or "Spirit").
These Holy Gods are further seen in this same chapter where it says,
That they shall drive thee from men, and thy dwelling shall be with the beasts of the field, and they shall make thee to eat grass as oxen, and they shall wet thee with the dew of heaven, and seven times shall pass over thee, till thou know that the most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever he will. And whereas they commanded to leave the stump of the tree roots; thy kingdom shall be sure unto thee, after that thou shalt have known that the heavens do rule. (Daniel 4:25-26 KJV)
And they shall drive thee from men, and thy dwelling shall be with the beasts of the field: they shall make thee to eat grass as oxen, and seven times shall pass over thee, until thou know that the most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever he will. (Daniel 4:32 KJV)14
Who are the "They"s in Daniel 4:25-26, and in verse 32? They are the Holy Gods of Daniel 4:8-9, 18; 5:11, and 14. They (Gods) shall drive him from men. They (Gods) shall make him eat grass like an oxen. They (Gods) shall wet him with the dew of heaven. They (Gods) "commanded" (Daniel 4:26). So,
after that thou shalt have known that the heavens do rule. (Daniel 4:26 KJV, "the Heavens rule," plural noun, plural verb שַׁלִּטִן שְׁמַיָּא [shallitin shemayyâ'])
Later in Daniel the Lord is called (more literally), “Highest Ones,” or "Most High Ones," with the Aramaic plural noun, עֶלְיוֹנִין (`elyonin) in Daniel 7:18, 22, 25, & 27. This word is typically translated “Highest One” or “Most High,” but it is actually a plural term. The singular form of this word, עִלָּיָא (`illâyâ'), is always found with the definite article (the plural always without) and is in Daniel 3:26; 4:2 (A3:32), 17 (A14), 24-25 (A21-22), 32 (A29), 34 (A31); 5:18, 21; and 7:25. In Daniel 7:25 we have both the singular and the plural, and so it reads more literally,
And he will speak a word against the Most High and wear out saints of Most High Ones and intend to change times and law, and they shall be given into his hand until a time, and times, and half a time.
IV. Testimony of Deceit
The record of the golden calf in Exodus 32 further reveals this truth. As in some of the above passages, Exodus 32:1 has the plural noun and the plural verb. The Israelis15 asked Aaron to make for them "gods that shall go before us,"16 and so Aaron fashioned for them a molded calf.
Since they asked for "gods" (plural), why did he only give them a single golden calf? Shouldn't he at least have given them two to fulfill their request for "gods"?17 No, he actually gave them just what they asked for. Note their response to the single golden calf.
And he received them at their hand, and fashioned it with a graving tool, after he had made it a molten calf: and they said, These be thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt. (Exodus 32:4 KJV)18
Aaron fashions for them a single golden calf in their request for "gods." Acts 7:40-41 records this same thing, a single golden calf in a request for "gods." In Exodus 32:4 they call the single golden calf "gods" that "brought" (plural verb) them up from the land of Egypt. Why? How is a single golden calf regarded as plural "gods"? Because this single golden calf was supposed to be the true God, who is Holy Gods (Joshua 24:19), as it says in the very next verse,
So when Aaron saw it, he built an altar before it. And Aaron made a proclamation and said, "Tomorrow is a feast to the Lord." (Exodus 32:5)
To the Lord? Yes, "to the Lord" לַיהוָה (layhvâh), to Yehvah (or Yahweh [WEB], or Jehovah [YLT]). The single golden calf was proclaimed as the true God, the Lord, who is Gods, as Moses said to the Israelis in Deuteronomy 5:26,
For who of all flesh has heard a voice of living Gods speak from the midst of the fire as we and lived? (a more literal translation, plural noun, plural adjective - "living Gods")
But the Lord had explicitly told them not to do this very thing.
You shall not make anything to be with Me - gods of silver or gods of gold you shall not make for yourselves. (Exodus 20:23)19
Nevertheless, they rejected this command, and made for themselves "gods of gold," a single golden calf that they hailed as, "These be thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt."
V. An Unholy Creed
The Athanasian Creed,20 historically accepted by Catholics and Protestants alike,21 makes a claim the Word of God never does (Proverbs 30:5-6). Speaking in the context of the "Trinity" (line 3), the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, it states,
And yet they are not three Gods, but one God. (line 16)22
This is true, for the false God of Catholicism and Protestantism, because they can define their "Trinity" (a term not found in the Bible) any way they choose. But, Scripture never declares or teaches this concept about the true God, the God of the Bible, that "they are not three Gods." As the above illustrates, it teaches He is Gods, and Hebrews chapter one reveals this even further.
But to the Son He says:
"Your throne, O God, is forever and ever; a scepter of righteousness is the scepter of Your kingdom. You have loved righteousness and hated lawlessness; therefore God, Your God, has anointed You with the oil of gladness more than Your companions." (Hebrews 1:8-9, see also Psalm 45:6-7)
Here God has a God, "Your throne, O God, . . . therefore God, Your God, . . . ." Jesus, who is God (John 8:58; John 20:27-29), has a God Himself. He spoke of His God in John 20:17 and Revelation 3:12. Revelation 1:6 also mentions "His God." In fact, God forsook God on the cross, as Jesus said,
And about the ninth hour Jesus cried out with a loud voice, saying, "Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani?" that is, "My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?" (Matthew 27:46)
Here we have God, who shed His blood (Acts 20:28), forsaken by God, as the Lord Jesus said, "My God, My God . . . ." Joshua was correct, "He is Holy Gods."
Furthermore, the Athanasian Creed also declares their "Trinity" as,
And yet not three Lords, but one Lord. (line 18)
Again, this is true for the Catholic and Protestant god. But, Scripture nowhere teaches of the true God that they are "not three Lords" (Proverbs 30:5-6). In fact, the most common and often used word in the OT for "Lord" in reference to God is literally in the Hebrew, "my Lords," אֲדנָי ('adonây). It is a plural noun with the singular pronominal suffix "my" at the end of it. It is usually transliterated and pronounced as "Adonai," and typically translated as "Lord" (e.g. Genesis 15:2, 8; 20:4; Exodus 5:22), "the Lord" (e.g. Genesis 18:27, 30-32; 1 Kings 3:10, 15; Job 28:28; Ezekiel 18:25, 29; 33:17, 20), "O Lord"23 (e.g. Exodus 34:9; Psalm 86:12, 15; Daniel 9:7, 15-16, 19 [3x]), or "my Lord" (e.g. Genesis 18:3; Exodus 34:9; Numbers 14:17; Psalm 16:2; 35:23; Isaiah 49:14). It is once translated in the NKJV (NAS; NIV; NLT) as "my lords" in Genesis 19:18.24
Nevertheless, Jesus quoting Psalm 110 said to the Pharisees,
The Lord said to my Lord, "Sit at My right hand, till I make Your enemies Your footstool." (Matthew 22:44; see the same in Mark 12:36; Luke 20:42-43)
Here we have one "Lord" speaking to another "Lord" and they are both God.25
See also 1 Kings 22:19 & 2 Chronicles 18:18 in which the Lord (Yehvah) says, "I saw the Lord . . .". In 1 Kings 22:14 (see also 2 Chronicles 18:13) Micaiah says,"whatever the Lord [Yehvah] says to me, that I will speak." Then, in 1 Kings 22:19 Micaiah gives what the Lord says to him.
Therefore hear the word of the Lord: I saw the Lord sitting on His throne, . . .
The Lord (Yehvah) saw the Lord (Yehvah) sitting on His throne.
Likewise, Obadiah 1:1 says,
The vision of Obadiah. Thus saith the Lord GOD concerning Edom; We have heard a rumour from the LORD, and an ambassador is sent among the heathen, Arise ye, and let us rise up against her in battle. (KJV)
Here Adonai Yehvih, (אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה) "the Lord GOD," says, "We have heard a rumour from the LORD" (Yehvah). Adonai (more literally, my Lords) is noted as "We," and They (Adonai) heard "from the LORD." Thus, my Lords ("We") heard from the Lord. Gods ("We") heard from God.
In Malachi 1:6 the Lord calls Himself, "Lords" אֲדוֹנִים ('adoniym), when He says, "If I am Lords, where is My fear" (a more literal translation). Psalm 136:2 commands to give thanks (more literally) "to the Gods of gods."26 Here both nouns are plural, לֵאלהֵי הָאֱלהִים (lê'lohêy hâ'elohiym). Joshua 22:22 says twice over, "God of gods" אֵל אֱלהִים ('êl 'elohiym), and Daniel 11:36 says "God of gods" אֵל אֵלִים ('êl 'êliym); but Psalm 136:2 literally say, "Gods of gods."27
Moreover, speaking again of their Father, Son, and Holy Spirit this Creed says,
And yet they are not three almighties, but one almighty. (line 14)
So it is for the Catholic and Protestant god. But, the God of Scripture is more Almighty than that. For the Bible clearly reveals more than one Almighty.
In Revelation 5:7 "the Almighty" (Revelation 1:8-18) Lamb "came and took the scroll out of the right hand" of the "Lord God Almighty" (Revelation 4:2-8) "who sat on the throne." There are clearly shown here two Almighties, two Holy Gods (Joshua 24:19), that are indeed One (Deuteronomy 6:4).
In addition, speaking again about their "Trinity" this unholy Catholic Athanasian Creed also claims,
11. And yet they are not three eternals but one eternal.
12. As also there are not three uncreated nor incomprehensible, but one uncreated and one incomprehensible.
Again, this is fine for the Catholic and Protestant god, but for the God of Scripture there is nowhere to be found in holy writ the concept of "not three eternals" nor "not three uncreated nor three incomprehesible." The Catholics and Protestants add to and deny His Word, and they will be proven liars (Proverbs 30:5-6; Revelation 21:8).
Finally, the spirit of this Creed is well and alive today within false Christianity. Speaking of this Creed, Philip Schaff wrote,
It furnishes one of the most remarkable examples of the extraordinary influence which works of unknown or doubtful authorship have exerted. (Creeds of Christendom, by Philip Schaff, Vol. 1, p. 50.)
The masses (Catholics and Protestants) give reverence to this "Trinity" with its antichrist (anti-scripture) definition as described above. It is no wonder such a term is typically so pivotal in theological debate. Often one is dismissed at once if the "Trinity" is not affirmed, even though the term and concept (as defined above) is unfounded in Scripture and is against Scripture. Nonetheless, this Creed pronounces a curse and damnation upon anyone who does not adhere to this classical view of this Catholic God, the "Trinity." As the Creed declares,
He therefore that will be saved must thus think of the Trinity. (line 28)
This is the catholic faith, which except a man believe faithfully he cannot be saved. (line 44; see also lines 1-3 in footnote 21)
This is indeed the Catholic faith and the faith of reformed whitewashed Catholics, Protestants. Since Scripture reveals that a false God is actually a demon (1 Corinthians 10:20), it is evident both Catholics and Protestants, since they serve a false "Trinity," serve a demon (1 Timothy 4:1-3) and follow fables (2 Timothy 4:3-4). This "Trinity," as described in this Creed, is both a demon and a fable (a myth).
VI. All The Fullness
Finally, "He is Holy Gods" (Joshua 24:19) comes together in the Lord Jesus Christ. Deuteronomy 6:4 says,
Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one!28
This is manifest in Christ Jesus.
For in Him dwells all the fullness of the Godhead29 bodily. (Colossians 2:9)
He (Christ) is Holy Gods (Joshua 24:19). Christ is not just a part of God. He is "all the fullness" of God Himself in the flesh, in a physical human body (Luke 24:36-43; Revelation 1:17-18; 19:11-16). For more on that, see "The Lord is a Man."
Finally, how many Gods are in the one and only true God? The Bible never gives a complete number. The Father, Son, and the Holy Spirit are indeed explicitly mentioned (Matthew 28:18-20; 1 John 5:7), but so are Jerusalem, the Seven Spirits, The Three Men of Genesis 18, The Horses, the Throne, the Heavens, and the Kingdom.
1. "Scholars" (false teachers of the past) typically acknowledge this Hebrew phrase (and other plural passages) indeed says, "He is Holy Gods," but believing it is another matter.
In the Hebrew, He is the holy Gods, . . . . (Joshua 24:19, Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible, by John Wesley)
Ye cannot serve the Lord, for He is a holy God, or as it is in the Hebrew, He is the holy Gods, intimating the mystery of the Trinity, three in one; (Commentary on the Whole Bible Volume II (Joshua to Esther), by Matthew Henry, commentary on Joshua 24:19)
Joshua xxiv. 19, "And Joshua said unto the people, Ye cannot serve Jehovah; for he is Holy God, Elohim Kedhoshim." He is the Holy Gods. Not only is the word Elohim properly plural, the very same that is used, verse 15, the gods which your fathers served, &c. - but the adjective Holy is plural. A plural substantive and adjective are used here concerning the True God, just in the same manner as in 1 Sam. iv. 8, "Who shall deliver us out of the hands of these mighty Gods." And in Dan. iv. 8, "In whom is the Spirit of the Holy Gods." So vs. 9, 18, chap. v. 11. (found in "Reasons Against Dr. Watt's Notion of the Pre-existence of Christ's Human Soul" e.g. on p. 536, Vol. III in The Works of President Edwards, in Four Volumes, 1851, published by Leavitt & Allen, 27 Day Street, New York)
And Joshua also said unto the people, chap. xxiv. 19, "Ye cannot serve the Lord, for he is holy Gods." Here, we not only have "Gods," (ELOIM) but "holy" also: signifying, that there are more than One: and yet he says, that the Lord is One God. (quote is from "The Three Creeds or Confessions of the Christian Faith, Used By Full Consent in the Church." by Martin Luther, found e.g. on p. 363 of Vol II, Select Works of Martin Luther: An Offering of the Church of God in "The Last Days" translated from the works of Luther by the Rev. Henry Cole, of Clare Hall, Cambridge, 1826)
Midrash Tanhuma - For an example of Jewish teaching, in Midrash Tanhuma, Translated Into English With Introduction, Indices and Brief Notes by John T. Townsend, in the context of "How many deities created the world?" it says,
Hence < the plurals > (Josh. 24:19): FOR HE IS HOLY GODS, in < the sense > that he is holy in all types of holiness.
This same page footnotes regarding Joshua 24:19,
19. While "God" in the Bible is commonly plural, here the adjective "holy" is plural as well.
20. Thus the text reads literally: FOR HE IS HOLY GODS. (p. 5, copyright 1989)
Jews For Jesus, in their article Jewishness and the Trinity, acknowledges this. They write,
Joshua 24:19: "…holy God…" [Literally: holy Gods.]
For an example of a more extensive article which acknowledges the Hebrew plural forms, but argues against them and reasons them away, see the article, Elohim: Plurality and "Attraction" Part 3. Nehemia Gordon's main argument in his article is that God is mostly referred to in the singular, and thus these couldn't mean what they say. He also makes a grammatical claim ("attraction") that is simply unsubstantiated (e.g. there is no consistency proving the claim) other than this is just how he explains it away. Along these lines (how to "interpret" the Bible), see the article on hermeneutics (www.atruechurch.info/hermeneutics.html).
2. The plural noun אֱלהִים ('elohiym, "Gods," "God," "gods," or "god" depending on context) is also found with the singular adjective קָדוֹשׁ (qâdosh) in 1 Samuel 6:20, "holy God."
Also, this plural noun אֱלהִים ('elohiym) is not only used in both a singular and plural context for the true God, but it is also used for false gods in both a plural (e.g. Exodus 23:13; Jeremiah 2:11; 16:20) and singular context. For example, what is translated, "goddess" in 1 Kings 11:5 is אֱלהֵי ('elohêy) which is the plural construct form of אֱלהִים ('elohiym, "gods," "god," "Gods," or "God" depending on context). This plural usage for a singular pagan god can also be found in Judges 9:27 (LXX "θεου"); 11:24 (LXX "θεος"); 1 Samuel 5:7 (LXX "θεον"); 1 Kings 11:33 (3x; LXX none); 2 Kings 1:16 (LXX "θεον"); 2 Chronicles 32:21 (LXX "θεου"); Ezra 1:7 (LXX "θεου," could also be translated "gods," e.g. KJV); Daniel 1:2 (2nd, LXX "θεου," could also be translated "gods," e.g. NRS); Jonah 1:5 (LXX "θεον", could also be translated, "gods" e.g. NLT).
אֱלהִים ('elohiym) is also used in 1 Samuel 28:13 along with the plural participle עלִים (`oliym) "ascending." Thus it reads more literally, "I saw gods ascending from the earth" (KJV; LXX "θεους εωρακα αναβαινοντας εκ της γης"). But, Saul's response is singular, "What is his form?" (1 Samuel 28:14; LXX "τι εγνως").
Also, in Exodus 7:1 God uses Elohiym for Moses when He says, "I have made thee a god to Pharaoh" (KJV).
Moreover, Scripture calls men gods in Exodus 18:11 (compare with Nehemiah 9:9-10) and in Psalm 82 (see also John 10:34-36). It also calls angels gods in Psalm 8:5 ("angels" in the Hebrew is אֱלהִים ['elohiym], "gods," compare w/Hebrews 2:7). Note also Deuteronomy 10:17; Psalm 97:7; 138:1. See also Exodus 21:6; 22:8-9 (H7-8) in which אֱלהִים ('elohiym) is typically translated "judges" (likewise KJV 1 Samuel 2:25). See also Psalm 29:1 and 89:7 where "mighty ones" and "sons of the mighty" are more literally, "sons of Gods," בְּנֵי אֵלִים (benêy 'êliym).
Also, Job 41:25 more literally reads,
From his raising, gods fear. From crashings, they purify themselves. (H41:17 מִשֵּׂתוֹ יָגוּרוּ אֵלִים מִשְּׁבָרִים יִתְחַטָּאוּ)
3. Proverbs 9:10b reads in the LXX, βουλη αγιων συνεσις (boulê hagiôn sunesis) "counsel of Holy Ones is understanding."
See also Proverbs 30:3 where it more literally reads, "knowledge of Holy Ones," דַעַת קְדשִׁים (da`at qedosiym, see also Young's Literal Translation [YLT] "knowledge of Holy Ones"). In this context two "Holy Ones" are mentioned. They are "His name" and "His Son's name" (Proverbs 30:4). See also Hosea 11:12 (H 12:1), קְדוֹשִׁים נֶאֱמָן (qedoshiym ne'emân) "Holy Ones Who is faithful" (a more literal translation; YLT "Holy Ones"). Here the plural adjective, קְדוֹשִׁים (qedoshiym) is with a singular participle, נֶאֱמָן (ne'emân).
Besides this plural form in its use for God (Joshua 24:19; Proverbs 9:10; 30:3; Hosea 11:12), every other time this word for "holy" is found in the plural form, it is always used as a plural (meaning "holy ones"). See Leviticus 11:44-45; 19:2; 20:7, 26; 21:6; Numbers 5:17; 15:40; 16:3; Deuteronomy 33:3; 2 Chronicles 35:3; Job 15:15 (Q); Psalm 16:3; 34:9 (H10); 89:5 (H6), 7 (H8); Daniel 8:24; Zechariah 14:5.
It is likewise in the Aramaic (קַדִּישִׁין) [qaddiyshiyn]). It is used in the plural for God in Daniel 4:8-9 (A5-6), 17-18 (A14-15), & 5:11. For every other time in the plural, see Daniel 7:18, 21, 22 (2x), 25, & 27.
Finally, Eliphaz the Temanite mysteriously says to Job,
Call out now; Is there anyone who will answer you? And to which of the holy ones will you turn? (Job 5:1, אֶל־מִי מִקְּדֹשִׁים ['el-mi miqqdoshiym] "to which of the holy ones")
4. Note also John 1:18 in the Critical Text reads, μονογενης θεος (monogenês theos) "only begotten God" (NAS). Received and Majority Texts read, μονογενης υιος (monogenês uios) "only begotten Son."
5. Genesis 3:22 well justifies a plural "Gods" translation of Genesis 3:5. In Genesis 3:5 the 1611 KJV reads,
For God doeth know, that in the day ye eate thereof, then your eyes shal-bee opened: and yee shall bee as Gods, knowing good and evill. (Elsewhere the 1611 translates lower case "gods," e.g. in Genesis 31:30, 32; 35:2, 4; Exodus 12:12; etc., but here they translate "Gods" with a capital "G," as they do also in Exodus 22:28; 1 Samuel 4:8 [current KJV also]; Daniel 4:8-9, 18; which all refer to the true Gods. 1611 also has "God" [capital "G"] for a god other than the true God. This can be found in Deuteronomy 3:24 [current]; 32:12; Psalm 81:9 [2x]; Isaiah 44:10, 15, 17 [2x]; Daniel 4:8 [compare to Daniel 1:2]; 11:38 ["a God whome his fathers knew not"]; Habakkuk 1:11; Malachi 2:11; Acts 7:43; 2 Corinthians 4:4 ["God of this world"]; Philippians 3:19 [current].)
The Hebrew word here translated "Gods" (1611 KJV) is the same word at the beginning of the verse translated "God." They are both אֱלהִים ('elohiym), and they both refer to the same Elohiym as Genesis 3:22 reveals.
Then the Lord God said, "Behold, the man has become like one of Us, to know good and evil." (Genesis 3:22a)
This is what the serpent was saying. They would become like Elohiym, "one of Us." "Us" in this context is "Gods" אֱלהִים ('elohiym).
6. Abraham met the Lord on several occasions (e.g. Acts 7:2; Genesis 12; 15; 17). When he met Melchizedek in Genesis 14:18-20, he encountered the Lord, for Melchizedek is God (see Hebrews 7). He also met the Lord in Genesis 18 as three Men. For more on that see, "The Three Men of Genesis 18 Are God."
7. For other examples of the plural noun אֱלהִים ('elohiym, "Gods," "gods," or "God" depending on context) with a plural verb see 1 Kings 19:2; 20:10 (יַעֲשׂוּן pl. w/paragoge); 2 Kings 18:33 (הִצִּילוּ); Jeremiah 11:12 (יוֹשִׁיעוּ). These are all typically translated "gods" (see NKJV; KJV).
8. For "when he fled from the face of his brother" see Genesis 28:10-22.
9. Laban, who evidently was an idolater (Genesis 31:30) said in Genesis 31:53,
The Gods of Abraham and the Gods of Nahor, the Gods of their father, they will judge between us. (a more literal translation)
As in Genesis 35:7, Laban here uses a plural verb יִשְׁפְּטוּ (yishpetu) "they will judge" in reference to the "Gods" that he speaks of. Moreover, each of the "Gods" mentioned here is in the plural construct, אֶלהֵי ('elohêy) and וֵאלהֵי (vê'lohêy).
10. אֱלהִים קְרבִים אֵלָיו כַּיהוָה אֱלהֵינוּ ('elohiym qeroviym 'êlâyv kayhvâh 'elohêynu) "Gods near to it as Yehvah our Gods" (Deuteronomy 4:7)
11. Psalm 58:11 - וְיאמַר אָדָם אַךְ־פְּרִי לַצַּדִּיק (veyo'mar 'âdâm 'akh-periy latsaddiyq) "And a man will say, "Indeed, fruit for the righteous," אַךְ יֵשׁ־אֱלהִים שׁפְטִים בָּאָרֶץ ('akh yêsh-'elohiym shophyiym bâ'ârets) "indeed, there are Gods judging in the earth." Here in Psalm 58:11 we have the verb יֵשׁ (there are) with the plural noun אֱלהִים (Gods) and the plural participle שׁפְטִים (judging). יֵשׁ (there are) is translated in the plural (as opposed to in the singular, "there is"), because the rest of the sentence construction is in the plural, "Gods judging." The context from verse 9 is indeed "His living and burning wrath." So, we have the one and only God being spoken of, once again, as Gods (plural).
12. 2 Chronicles 32:15 is another pagan example were the plural verb is used with the plural noun, but the speaker spoke in the singular as well; yet it is not typically translated in the plural as in 1 Samuel 4:8. The last sentence in 2 Chronicles 32:15 more literally reads,
Indeed for your Gods will not deliver you from my hand.
Here in the Hebrew is the plural noun "your Gods" אֱלהֵיכֶם ('elohêychem) used with the plural verb "deliver" יַצִּילוּ (yatstsilu) for "Gods will . . . deliver." The verse just prior to this the speaker referred to the same God using the plural noun but with a singular verb saying,
Who was there among all the gods of those nations that my fathers utterly destroyed that could deliver his people from my hand, that your God should be able to deliver you from my hand? (2 Chronicles 32:14)
Here "your God" is a plural noun, אֱלהֵיכֶם ('elohêychem), and "should be able" is a singular verb, יוּכַל (yuchal).
13. Daniel 5:11 also mentions Daniel as having, "light and understanding and wisdom, like the wisdom of the gods."
14. Technically, there is only one "they" in the Aramaic in Daniel 4:25 (A22) and 4:32 (A29). It is the Aramaic 3rd masculine plural verb, יְטַעֲמוּן (yeta`amun), "they shall make . . . eat" (NKJV). The other two "they"s in Daniel 4:25 (and one other "they" in 4:32) are masculine plural participles (טָרְדִין [târdiyn], "shall drive", & מְצַבְּעִין [metsab`iyn] "shall wet"). So, the subject is truly plural, and thus they are properly translated with "they."
Moreover, Daniel 4:31 (A28) has the masculine plural participle, אָמְרִין ('âmriyn), for "it is spoken" (NKJV), more literally, "they speak." This same exact word is also found in Ezra 5:3; Daniel 2:7, 10; 3:16, 24; 6:6-7, 13-14, and 16 in a plural context. It is also found in Daniel 3:4 for the command of King Nebuchadnezzar (see Daniel 3:10). The singular form of this word is used in that same chapter for the king in verses 13-14, 19-20, 24-26, and 28.
Finally, the plural form is also found in Daniel 7:5 for a command by "they." Daniel 7:18, 22, 25, 27 all use the plural noun, עֶלְיוֹנִין (`elyoniyn), which is more literally, "High Ones" in reference to God. And then, in Daniel 7:26 "they shall take away" is a masculine plural verb, יְהַעְדּוֹן (yeha`don).
15. Israeli is a Biblical term. It is found in the masculine form, יִשְׂרְאֵלִי (yisre'êli), only in Leviticus 24:10 & 2 Samuel 17:25. In the feminine form, יְשְׂרְאֵלִית (yesre'êliyt), it is found only in Leviticus 24:10-11.
16. Acts 7:40 likewise has "gods to go before us" θεους οι προπορευσονται ημων (theous hoi proporeusontai hêmôn). The LXX likewise reads for Exodus 32:1, ποιησον ημιν θεους, οι προπορευσονται ημων (poiêson hêmin theous, oi propoeusontai hêmôn) "make us gods, who go before us."
17. Jeroboam made two calves and said,
It is too much for you to go up to Jerusalem. Here are your gods, O Israel, which brought you up from the land of Egypt! (1 Kings 12:28b)
Jeroboam's deception was very much as in Exodus 32. Note the next verse.
And he set up one in Bethel, and the other he put in Dan. (1 Kings 12:29)
There is only one calf in each location for worship.
18. "These be thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up" (Exodus 32:4 KJV) in the Hebrew reads,
אֵלֶּה אֱלהֶיךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר הֶעֱלוּךָ ('êlleh 'eloheykhâ yisrâêl 'asher he`elukhâ mêe'rets mitsrâyim).
The LXX reads, ουτοι οι θεοι σου Ισραηλ, οιτινες ανεβιβασαν σε εκ γης Αιγυπτου (houtoi oi theoi sou Israêl, hoitines anebibasan se ek gês Aiguptou) "these are your Gods Israel, who brought you up out of the land of Egypt." See likewise in LXX in Exodus 32:8. Also, Exodus 32:31 reads in the LXX, ἐποίησαν ἑαυτοῖς θεοὺς χρυσοῦς (epoiêsan eautois theous chrusous) "made for themselves gods of gold."
In Nehemiah 9:18 this statement is made with the plural noun אֱלהֶיךָ ('eloheychâ) but singular demonstrative pronoun זֶה (zeh) "this" and the singular verb הֶעֶלְךָ (he`elchâ) "brought you up."
19. Israel was also commanded,
He who sacrifices to the gods shall be destroyed, unless it is to the LORD only. (Exodus 22:20, my translation of, זבֵחַ לָאֱלהִים יָחָרָם בִּלְתִּי לַיהוָה לְבַדּוֹ [zovêach lâ'elohiym yâchârâm biltiy layhvâh levado])
Exodus 22:20 in the LXX reads, Ο θυσιαζων θεοις θανατω εξολοθρευθησεται, πλην κυριω μονω (ho thusiazôn theois thanatô exolothreuthêsetai, plên kuriô monô) "He who sacrifices to gods shall be destroyed by death, unless it is to the Lord only."
20. The Athanasian Creed linked here was copied from www.ccel.org/creeds/athanasian.creed.html.
21. Although, "Its origin is involved in obscurity, like that of the Apostle's Creed," (Schaff, p. 50) the Athanasian Creed historically is and was a Roman Catholic Creed. The first three lines of the Creed read,
Whosoever will be saved, before all things it is necessary that he hold the catholic faith.
Which faith except every one do keep whole and undefiled, without doubt he shall perish everlastingly.
And the catholic faith is this: That we worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity;
Liars play word games with this word "catholic" (as 1 Timothy 6:4 says they will do), but it nonetheless means and fits Catholic theology. The Creed itself uses the term "catholic faith" three times (lines 1, 3, & 44) and "catholic religion" once (line 20). Also, historically, Protestant faiths have used this Catholic Athanasian Creed as well. For example, see Creeds of Christendom, by Philip Schaff, Vol. 1, p. 49-54.
Furthermore, according to Schaff, even though the name of the Creed comes from the supposed author, Athanasius, it actually was not written by him.
Since the middle of the seventeenth century the Athanasian authorship has been abandoned by learned Catholics as well as Protestants. The evidence against it is conclusive. (Creeds of Christendom, by Philip Schaff, Vol. 1, p. 50)
22. The false teacher, Hank Hanegraaff, likewise writes,
Thus, the plural ending of Elohim points to a plurality of persons, not to a plurality of gods. (p. 91, The Complete Bible Answer Book, by Hank Hanegraaff, Collector's Edition, copyright 2008, Thomas Nelson, ellipsis in original, underlining added)
Psalm 14:1 more literally says,
A fool says in his heart, "There are no Gods." (see same in Psalm 53:1)
In the Hebrew this is,
אָמַר נָבָל בְּלִבּוֹ אֵין אֱלהִים ('âmar nâvâl belibo 'êyn 'elohiym)
The particle אֵין ('êyn) "There are not" (or "there is not") is determined by the noun אֱלהִים ('elohiym) which is plural. Psalm 10:4 likewise, speaking of the wicked, more literally says,
"There are no Gods" are all of his thoughts. (אֵין אֱלהִים כָּל־מְזִמּוֹתָיו ['êyn 'elohiym kol-mezimmotâyv], note also in the Hebrew 2 Kings 1:16; Isaiah 44:6, 8; 45:5; Ezekiel 28:2)
23. אֲדנָי ('adonây) is also found with בִּי (biy) thus in the Hebrew it reads בִּי אֲדנָי (biy 'adonây). The NKJV translates this, "O my Lord" (e.g. Exodus 4:10, 13; Joshua 7:8; Judges 6:15; 13:8).
24. Like Elohim (אֱלהִים 'elohiym), Adonai (אֲדנָי 'adonây) is commonly used in the singular context (i.e. singular verbs, singular adjectives). Yet, it is found specifically in a plural context in Genesis 18:3; 19:18 (NKJV; NAS, "my lords"), Isaiah 6:8 ("Us"), and Obadiah 1:1 ("We"). Adonai (אֲדנָי 'adonây) is a very common word in the OT and is always used of God, except some may argue in Ezra 10:3. Yet, this could be translated, "advice of Adonai" or "advice of my Lords" (NKJV "advice of my master").
There is another form of this word for "my lords" which is spelled a little different. It is אֲדוֹנַי ('adonay), and it is only found in Genesis 19:2 (NKJV "my lords").
In the singular, "my lord" in the Hebrew is אֲדוֹנִי ('adoniy), and is found addressing men in e.g. Genesis 23:6, 11, 15; 24:12 ("my master"); Numbers 12:11; 1 Kings 3:17, 26; etc.. This same word, אֲדוֹנִי ('adoniy), is used for addressing God as "my Lord" in Joshua 5:14; Judges 6:13; Psalm 110:1; Zechariah 1:9; 4:4-5, 13; 6:4 ("the angel who talked with me" in Zechariah is identified as the Angel of the Lord in Zechariah 1:12-13, who is God, Zechariah 3:1-2; 12:8). Note, in Psalm 110:1 Christ is called Adoni, and in Psalm 110:5 He is called Adonai. He is at the right hand of Yehvah (110:1), and it is Christ who will "execute kings in the day of His wrath" (Revelation 19:11-21).
In addressing God, there is also "Lord," אֲדוֹן ('adon), in Joshua 3:11, 13; Psalm 97:5; Zechariah 4:14; 6:5; Micah 4:13. In all of these passages אֲדוֹן ('adon) is with the phrase כָּל־הָאָרֶץ (kol hâ'ârets). The NKJV translates these as "the Lord of all the earth," or "the Lord of the whole earth," but the definite article ("the") before "Lord" is not there in the Hebrew. For אֲדוֹן ('adon) with the definite article, "the Lord" הָאָדוֹן (hâ'âdon), in addressing God this is found in Exodus 23:17; 34:23; Psalm 114:7; Isaiah 1:24; 3:1; 10:16, 33; 19:4; Malachi 3:1.
Moreover, in the plural absolute, אֲדֹנִים ('adoniym) "Lords," it is found in a singular context (i.e. with a singular adjective) in Isaiah 19:4. In Isaiah 26:13 it is used with a plural verb. In 1 Kings 22:17 & 2 Chronicles 18:16 it stands alone (no singular or plural compliment). In Malachi 1:6 it is used for God.
This plural noun with the third masculine plural suffix ("their") for literally "their lords," אֲדוֹנֵיהֶם ('adonêyhem), is used in both a plural and singular context. For a plural context, see Nehemiah 3:5 (?); Psalm 123:2; Jeremiah 27:4; Zephaniah 1:9; Amos 4:1. For a singular context, see Judges 3:25; 2 Samuel 10:3; 1 Kings 12:27; 2 Kings 6:22-23.
This plural noun with the second masculine plural suffix ("your") for literally "your lords," אֲדֹנֵיכֶם ('adonêykhem), is only used for men and is found in both a plural and singular context. For a plural context, see Jeremiah 27:4. For a singular context, see 1 Samuel 26:16; 2 Samuel 2:5, 7; 1 Kings 1:33; 2 Kings 10:2-3 (2x), 6; 19:6; Isaiah 37:6.
This plural noun with the third masculine singular suffix ("his") for literally "his lords," אֲדֹנָיו ('adonâyv) is in this form always found in a singular context when used for men. Thus, it has the meaning of “his lord.” For its use for men, see Genesis 24:9-10 [2x]; 39:2-3, 7-8, 16, 19; 40:7; Exodus 21:4, 6 [2x], 32; Deuteronomy 23:16 [2x]; Judges 19:11-12; 1 Samuel 20:38; 25:10; 29:4; 2 Samuel 11:9, 13; 1 Kings 11:23; 2 Kings 5:1, 4, 25; 6:32; 8:14; 9:11, 31; 19:4; 1 Chronicles 12:20; 2 Chronicles 13:6; Job 3:19; Proverbs 25:13; 27:18; 30:10; Isaiah 37:4; Malachi 1:6. For its use for God, see Hosea 12:14 [H15].
Likewise, this word is used in the plural with the second singular suffix ("your") for literally "your lords" אֲדֹנֶיךָ ('adoneykha). Yet, when used of men, it is always found in the singular context. See Genesis 44:8; 1 Samuel 26:15 (2x); 29:1; 2 Samuel 9:9-10 (2x); 12:8; 16:3; 20:6; 1 Kings 18:8, 11, 14; 2 Kings 2:3, 5, 16; 9:7; 18:27 (2x); Isaiah 22:18; 36:12. It is used for God in Psalm 45:12 & Isaiah 51:22.
Likewise, this word is used in the plural with the first plural suffix ("our") for literally "our lords" (e.g. אֲדנֵינוּ adonâynu). Yet, when used for men it is always used in a singular context. For its use for men, see 1 Samuel 25:14, 17; 1 Kings 1:11, 43, 47. For its use for God, see Psalm 8:1, 9; 135:5; 147:5; Nehemiah 8:10; 10:29 (H30).
Finally, this plural noun is found with the singular feminine suffix ("her") for literally "her lords," אֲדֹנֶיהָ ('adoneyha). Yet, it is always in a singular context referring to a man. See Exodus 21:8; Judges 19:26-27.
25. The Hebrew for Psalm 110 reads, נְאֻם יְהוָה לַאדנִי (ne'um yehvâh la'doniy), more literally, "Yehvah said to my Lord." The LXX and NT Greek read, ειπεν ο κυριος τω κυριω μου (eipen ho kurios tô kuriô mou), "The Lord said to my Lord."
26. Psalm 136:3 commands to give thanks to (more literally) "the Lords of Lords." Both nouns here in the Hebrew are plural, אֲדנֵי הָאֲדנִים ('adonêy hâ'adoniym). Likewise, Dueteronomy 10:17 more literally reads,
For Yehvah your God He is Gods of Gods and Lords of Lords, the great God, the Mighty One and the Awesome One, . . . . (a more literal translation of Deuteronomy 10:17)
Yet, the plural construct form for literally "Lords of," אֲדנֵי ('adonêy), elsewhere is used for a singular subject. See Genesis 39:20; 42:30, 33; and 1 Kings 16:24.
27. The Athanasian Creed also declares,
For like as we are compelled by the Christian verity to acknowledge every Person by himself to be God and Lord.
So are we forbidden by the catholic religion to say; There are three Gods or three Lords. (lines 19-20)
This forbiddance is the doctrine of men (Matthew 15:8-9) and is not found in holy writ (Proverbs 30:5-6). Actually, what is found is this:
Thou shalt not revile the Gods, nor curse the ruler of thy people. (1611 KJV Exodus 22:28; KJV "gods;" NKJV "God")
In the Hebrew text this is found in Exodus 22:27, and for "Thou shalt not revile the Gods" it reads, אֱלהִים לא תְקַלֵּל ('elohiym lo' teqallâl). LXX reads, Θεους ου κακολογησεις (theous ou kakologêseis), "You shall not revile Gods" (Exodus 22:28a). Even the Catholic translation, the Douay-Rheims Bible, says, "Thou shalt not speak ill of the gods" (Exodus 22:28a).
28. שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלהֵינוּ יְהוָה אֶחָד (shema` yisrâ'êl yehvâh 'elohêynu yehvâh 'echâd, Deuteronomy 6:4). More literally, "Hear Israel. Yehvah our God, Yehvah is One."
There is no other God but Yehvah, the Lord (1 Kings 8:60; Isaiah 44:8; 45:5-6, 14, 18, 21-22; 46:9; Joel 2:27; Mark 12:32; 1 Corinthians 8:4). In other words, there is only one God, Yehvah, the Lord, and He is One, as Deuteronomy 6:4 declares.
What does this mean, that He is One? Besides other Scriptures given in this article, John 10:30; 17:11, 21-23 all reveal the Oneness of God. In these passages Christ describes Himself and His Father as One, yet they are Two (John 8:17-18). In these verses Christ also prays that His disciples would be one as He and His Father are one. In John 17 Jesus clearly speaks of a oneness ("one") that is a unity of persons.
Likewise, for those who may engage in "arguments over words" (1 Timothy 6:4), Genesis 2:24 uses the same Hebrew word for "one," אֶחָד ('echâd), as Deuteronomy 6:4, and there it is used for two becoming one.
Likewise, Genesis 11:6 uses the same Hebrew word for "one," אֶחָד ('echâd), as Deuteronomy 6:4, and there it is used for a multitude of people.
And the Lord said, "Indeed the people are one, . . . ."
Here in Genesis 11:6 the Hebrew wording is identical to what is found in Deuteronomy 6:4. Genesis 11:6 has, עַם אֶחָד ('echâd `am) more literally, "people one." Deuteronomy 6:4 has, יְהוָה אֶחָד ('echâd Yehvah), more literally, "Yehvah one." Genesis 11:6 illustrates a "one" of unity similar to the "one" of unity Christ speaks of in John 17.
Furthermore, this same Hebrew word for "one" is used also in Numbers 14:15; Judges 6:16; 20:1, 8, 11; 2 Samuel 19:14(H15); Ezra 3:1; Nehemiah 8:1 where people are together "as one man," כְּאִישׁ אֶחָד (ke'iysh 'echâd). This same Hebrew word is also used in 2 Chronicles 5:13 and Ezra 3:9 where people are "as one," כְאֶחָד (khe'echâd), כְּאֶחָד (ke'echâd, respectively). See also Ezra 2:64 were 42,360 are כְּאֶחָ֑ד (ke'echâd) "as one" (KJV; NKJV "together").
29. The Greek word for "Godhead" in Colossians 2:9 is θεοτητος (theotêtos) which is only found here. Romans 1:20 also has "Godhead" which is a translation of the Greek word θειοτης (theiotês) which is only found in Romans 1:20. The KJV has "Godhead" in Acts 17:29 (NKJV "Divine Nature") for its translation of θειον (theion). θειον (theion) is also only found in 2 Peter 1:3-4. There the KJV & NKJV translate both times as "divine."
For more on God, see The True Fear of God, Jerusalem Is God, The Lord Is A Man, God Is Love, The Lord Kills, The Seven Spirits of God Are God, The Horses of Zechariah 1 Are God, The Three Men In Genesis 18 Are God, The Throne, Heaven, and the Kingdom Are God, God Is The Cause of Deception and Evil.
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